Following a disturbance such as a fire, certain plants succeed in growing again before other plants.
The species composition of a forest changes following a fire.
Twelve identical ponds were constructed and filled with sterile water, so there were no preexisting organisms. One year later, each pond contained 31 to 39 of the 61 total species present in all the ponds.
Historical studies on plant fossils showed that the distribution of species and communities has changed since the end of the last ice age and that species did not change their distributions in close association with one another.