For most ecosystems, energy pyramids are similar (i.e., broad at the base and narrow at the top). What is the primary reason for this pattern?

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    Top carnivores and secondary consumers have a more general diet than primary producers.
    As materials pass through the ecosystem, some are lost to the environment.
    Secondary consumers and top carnivores require more energy than producers.
    Within each trophic level, some of the energy acquired is used for metabolism or is lost as litter or feces. This makes this energy unavailable to the next trophic level.
asked May 19, 2013 in Biology by anonymous
    

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Within each trophic level, some of the energy acquired is used for metabolism or is lost as litter or feces. This makes this energy unavailable to the next trophic level.
answered May 20, 2013 by Bioshare ~Top Expert~ (34,070 points)

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